Growing tomatoes in the open ground

Tomatoes in the open groundWhen growing tomatoes in the open, there is no particular need to hurry with the planting of seedlings. In the absence of shelters, the transplant should not begin before 5-10 June.

Attention should also be paid to the preparation of the soil mixture, which must be started from the autumn.

When we are going to cultivate tomatoes in the area that was fertilized with fresh manure during the cultivation of the previous crop, in autumn during the digging the soil should also be fertilized with a mixture of superphosphate and potassium chloride, which are consumed in 0,3-04 kg for every 10 m2. The depth at which the soil is digested for tomatoes should be of the order of 25-30 cm.

If the soil was not fertilized with manure during the cultivation of the precursor, then for cultivation of tomatoes they must be introduced in moderate quantities (the rate of consumption is 3-4 kg per 1 m2). The only nuance here is to carry out this procedure in the fall, combining it with the introduction of mineral fertilizers. In early spring you need to perform harrowing. To planting should proceed, only fertilizing first the soil with ammonium nitrate (the rate of consumption - 1,5 glass at 10 m2), After which the digging to a depth of up to 15 is carried out.

If the autumn digging was carried out without applying fertilizers, then this operation is carried out in the spring, combining it with digging the soil. In the absence of mineral fertilizers, they can be replaced with a garden fertilizer mixture (the rate of consumption 1 kg at 10 m2) Or 0,6 kg nitrofoski. To fertilize the maximum benefit, first you need to make furrows or holes, where they should be brought. To make a mixture of a bucket of compost soil mix with 70 gardening mixture or 50 g nitrofoski. When applied to the soil, the following consumption rate is observed: for one plant - 1 l of the finished mixture. Mineral fertilizers can replace the 1,5 glass of ash, which is mixed with a bucket of compost.

When growing early-ripening, low-growing tomato varieties in open ground, adhere to the following scheme of planting: the rows are located at a distance of 60 cm, and the plants themselves should be removed at 30 cm from each other. For tall varieties, the following scheme is considered optimal: 70? 30 and 70? 50. See transplant seedlings. It is advisable to choose the day when the weather is cloudy, it is allowed to plant plants on a sunny day, but only in the evening. At the beginning of planting and at its completion, the wells should be moistened.

Plant tomato bushes so that the stems are not covered with earth, while in the hole they should be located at the same level as they grew in pots. If the stem is covered with earth, it will lead to the formation of many new additional roots, as a result of which the first brush will begin to bloom later than usual. If the next day is hot, then freshly planted plants need to provide an artificial shadow, using paper or branches for this.

Growing tomatoes in the open field is not possible without regular watering. In most cases, there is enough weekly watering. Along with this, plants need also in loosening: for this, soil is cultivated in row-spacing. If tomatoes are watered infrequently, especially if there has been no rain for a long time, the risk of damage to the fruit by the top rot increases.

When 10 days pass from the day of transplantation, the first top dressing is carried out: a solution of Mullein is applied to the plants, which is first diluted in the proportion 1: 10. The decision on carrying out of new fertilizing is taken, proceeding from a condition of plants. Every 10 days should be fertilized with mineral fertilizers, for which 10 l of water is diluted with 60 grit or 10 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride and add about 40 g superphosphate. While the plants do not enter the flowering phase, they are fed with a solution in the amount of 1 l, after a while the rate is increased to 2l.

It may happen that the plants have grown quite large, but there is a delay in flowering and fruit bearing. In this case, nitrogen fertilizers, including both mineral and organic fertilizers, are stopped to be introduced into the soil. If plants receive too much nitrogen, then their "fattening" is observed, as a result of which the formation of the ovaries and the ripening of the fruit are tightened.

What are the methods by which you can achieve earlier ripening by growing tomatoes in the open field? This question is one of the most relevant for every trucker, because everyone wants to ensure that every fruit in the bush can ripen before it freezes. The right formation can help in achieving this goal.

A characteristic feature of tomato shrubs is the tendency to branch strongly. Each kidney, which is in the axillary of the leaf on the main stem, becomes the place from which the side shoot of the stepchild occurs. The operation to remove these shoots was called pasynkovaniya and it is carried out both when growing tomatoes in the open field, and when growing them in a greenhouse. Without carrying out pasynkovaniya in a tomato bush will begin to grow a large number of shoots with flower brushes. All this leads to the setting of a multitude of fruits, however, a very short vegetative period does not allow all the fruits to form and even ripen, which adversely affects the entire crop.

For better maturation, two-stem tomato formation should be carried out - the plant leaves the main stem and stepson, which is under the first flower brush. And other shoots just pinch that after them there are penechki having the height of 0,5-1 cm. To conduct pasynkovaniya should be regular, every 7-10 days, making sure that shoots do not grow more than 4-5 see. In case of delay with the conduct of pasynkovaniya , As a result of which the shoots turned out to be rather developed, they leave the situation without breaking them, but only pinching the top. Approximately 20 July, it's time to go for the last time: the apex is necessary to pinch, so the plant will spend its energy not on growth, but on the formation and ripening of fruits.

To grow tomatoes in the open field brought the maximum results and it became possible to harvest earlier than usual, the tops of plants begin to pinch at the moment when the flowering period for 2-3 flower brushes ends.

The moment for harvesting comes when the fruits acquire blanche ripeness or just whiten. After collection, they are placed on a dosage. Such a method promotes earlier ripening of fruit remaining on the bush, as a result of which it is possible to collect higher yields. It is very important that harvesting in the fall be carried out in a timely manner. If you send fruit on the tillage, which were on the plants at a temperature below 5-8 ° C, then after a short time they begin to decay.

To bring tomatoes to a ripe state, they are placed in a room that has good ventilation, in which a high temperature is maintained (20-25 ° C). In the case of fructifying the fruit at lower temperature conditions (12 ° C), the fruit takes more time to achieve ripeness, the temperature drop to the mark of 10 ° C and below leads to decay of the fruit. To make the fruits ripe early, in the boxes are placed on the dosage together with green tomatoes and a few pieces of red. Thanks to the allocation of ripe ethylene gas, green tomatoes begin to rip much earlier.

To process the maturation of tomatoes lasted as long as possible and thus was able to consume fresh fruits for a long time, every day, conduct inspection of boxes with tomatoes, from which regularly extract fruits with a red color.

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