Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse

Tomatoes in the greenhouseWhen growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, with the onset of autumn, when the entire crop is harvested, they make a digging of the soil in the greenhouse to a depth of 25-30. In the spring, however, a second digging with fertilization is done, if the like is not taken care of in the autumn, after which the earth is covered with a film Preferably dark), which will accelerate the process of heating the soil.

When 3-5 days remain until the date of the planned transplantation, they begin to form ridges. When calculating their number, as well as the width, you need to focus on the size of the greenhouse. The distance between the holes in the row should be of the order of 35-45 cm. The wells with which the series ends and starts should be removed from the walls of the greenhouse by 40 cm.

To plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse proceed when the temperature of the soil inside the greenhouse at a depth of 10-12 cm reaches the mark of 13-15 ° C. If the horticulturist has a greenhouse with heating, seedlings can be planted earlier. Initially, the seedlings should be removed from the container, making sure that there is a lump of earth on the root system, after which the plants are placed in holes, add the ground there to a small depression. Each well must be carefully poured with warm water (+ 25 ° C), consuming one 4-6 l. It is allowed to plant seedlings in the previously spilled holes, after planting the plants are sprinkled with soil, once again watered, but with a small amount of necessarily warm water. Overgrown seedlings are placed horizontally in the hole, so that it does not differ in height from the rest of the plants, most of the stem must be sprinkled with soil. After planting is complete, it is recommended to prune the plant.

Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse

Care for tomatoes grown in a greenhouse is reduced to timely watering and top dressing, garters and formation, to measures aimed at fighting pests and diseases, as well as maintaining a favorable temperature regime, loosening of soil and other mandatory work.

While the plants did not enter the fruiting phase, in sunny weather, the temperature of the air in the greenhouse should be in the area of ​​the mark of 22-23 ° C, cloudy at about 20 ° C, and at night - 15-16 ° C. When the fruits begin to form on the plants, the daytime temperature should be 24-26 and 20-22 ° C, and the night temperature should be 1-18 ° C. It should be ensured that there is no overheating of the plants. If the temperature in the greenhouse rises above the mark 35 ° C, then this makes the pollen sterile and leads to the fall of the flowers. To ensure inside the greenhouse favorable for tomato growth temperature, resort to its ventilation. When warm weather is set in the street, the windows and doors should be opened. To make pollination more efficient, it is useful from time to time (every morning, not yet hot) to shake the flowers, for which it is enough to tap the trellis on the wire.

The care for tomatoes in greenhouses in May-June is to loosen the soil on beds 3-4 times.

After transplanting, it is necessary to exclude irrigation during the first 7-12 days. Only after this time, watering resumes: in May it is only 1-2 times, and in June the frequency is increased to 2-3 times. When calculating the water norm, they are guided by the age of the plants and the current weather: at 1 m2 Can be used from 5 to 20 l at a time, with the use of warm water (20-25 ° C). Watering plants should be so that the bed has been soaked thoroughly, making sure that water does not get on the leaves. In the greenhouse itself it is necessary to keep the humidity at a level no higher than 40-60%, which will allow to provide favorable conditions for the pollination of flowers. In the case of excess moisture in the air and in the soil, there is a risk of disease, which is especially common when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse.

It's time to carry out the first fertilizing already after 15-20 days from the day of transplanting the seedlings, then it is carried out every 2-3 weeks, and the final one - for 20-25 days before the end of the growing season. For the first time, a solution of mineral fertilizers is introduced into the soil-for this, ammonium nitrate (15g), superphosphate (50g) and potassium sulfate (30g) are bred in a bucket of water. When the plants enter the fruiting phase, then the norm of ammonium nitrate is adjusted to 40 g, potassium sulfate to 60 g, while superphosphate is added less - 30g, while the amount of water remains unchanged. When applying fertilizing observe the following proportions: for each plant 1 a liter of solution. In addition, plants need also in foliar top dressing: for this, they are sprayed with formulations in the evening or in the daytime in cloudy weather.

After 8-10 days from the day the seedlings are planted, it's time to garter: here we use twine, which is fixed to wire trellises, this operation is combined with pasynkovanie. Methods of plant formation can differ and are determined by the cultivated variety. For cultivation in greenhouse conditions, preference is given to both determinant and indeterminate varieties. The advantage of the first is harvesting in the early periods, and the latter demonstrate a powerful growth, a long period of vegetation and high productivity. When growing tomatoes of indeterminate varieties that are characterized by high growth, the formation is carried out in one stem, from time to time pinching all stepsons. Pinching the top is left until the plant grows to the roof of the greenhouse, on one plant there should be no more than 7-8 inflorescences. This procedure is mandatory for growing tomatoes in greenhouses.

In the case of determinant varieties, the procedure is different: the formation is carried out in two stems, while the most developed lower stepson is not touched next to the first inflorescence, other stepsons are plucked. Single-barreled method of shaping provides pinching of all stepsons, except for 5-6 flower brushes on the main shoot. Pasynkovanie spend and with the last upper flower brush, which should remain 2-3 sheet. When forming such plants, you can use the reserve stepson: usually they are the one that is located above the 2-3 inflorescence (from the top). Also, a two-stem formation scheme can be used: while retaining the main stem, one of the stepsons, which was formed under the first flower brush, is left. The main stem should contain 3-4 flower brushes, the top should be pinched, removing all the leaves except three, and the stepson should have 2-3 brushes and the same number of leaves.

Leaves located at the bottom, as well as old leaves that are already yellowing, should be removed. This will positively affect the light and air exchange, and minimize the risk of spreading diseases and help tomatoes to enter the fruiting phase.



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